Monday, July 25, 2011

Mobile technologies for libraries: A list of mobile applications and resources for development

The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) estimated that more than 5 billion mobile subscriptions would exist worldwide by the end of 2010, which more than tripled home Internet access. ITU also predicts Web access from mobile devices will exceed access from desktop computers within the next five years.

Nigeria Communication Commission (NCC), estimates that by May, 2010 – April, 2011, there would be ninety million (90, 000.000) active lines in the telecommunication industry. Mobile (GSM) – 83, 643, 903million, mobile (CDMA)- 5, 985, 163 and fixed wired/wireless- 957, 719.

Therefore, libraries should be exploring mobile devices as a way to connect with patrons. Creating a library application (“app”) or mobile Web site that allows patrons to access library hours, view their library account or even search databases is easier than most people think. The resources below should help libraries begin to plan and implement their own unique mobile presence.

Sunday, July 24, 2011

More than 4, 000 National Academies Press PDFs now available to download for free

The National Academies—National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, Institute of Medicine, and National Research Council—are committed to distributing their reports to as wide an audience as possible. Since 1994 they have offered “Read for Free” options for almost all their titles. In addition, they have been offering free downloads of most of our titles to everyone and of all titles to readers in the developing world. They are now going one step further. Effective June 2nd, PDFs of reports that are currently for sale on the National Academies Press (NAP) Website and PDFs associated with future reports* will be offered free of charge to all Web visitors.

Saturday, July 23, 2011

Internet Archive Starts Backing Up Digital Books on Paper

If you want real long-term backups of digitized ebooks, then look no further than dead tree. At least, that's the consensus of the Internet Archive project, which has announced an incredibly ambitious plan to store one physical copy of every published book in the world.

"Internet Archive is building a physical archive for the long term preservation of one copy of every book, record, and movie they are able to attract or acquire... The goal is to preserve one copy of every published work,".

Kahle cites a number of reasons for wanting to preserve physical copies of works that are being digitized; for instance, a dispute could arise about the fidelity of the digital version, and only access to a copy of the original would resolve it.

Friday, July 22, 2011

British Library makes Google search deal

Thousands of pages from one of the world's biggest collections of historic books, pamphlets and periodicals are to be made available on the internet.
The British Library has reached a deal with search engine Google about 250,000 texts dating back to the 18th Century.

It will allow readers to view, search and copy the out-of-copyright works at no charge on both the library and Google books websites.

Seven best practices for creating and sustaining value the Peter Drucker way

Wisdom Can Inspire and Transform Your Life

1. Keep your focus on achievement and leaving something behind of value. If you do that regularly, you will never be finished with worthwhile things to do.

2. Identify and cultivate your unique strengths/core competencies. How can these
strengths make you a more valuable person at work and outside of work?
How can they help make your organization more valuable?

3. Blend reflection and action. Consider what people in your organization, your
personal network, friends and family find valuable.

4. Practice systematic abandonment. You may have to give up things that you
enjoy doing, or that your organization found to be useful in the past, in order
to create new meaning and new value.

5. Get out of the office and into the world. You can become a more valuable person, and recognize important opportunities for your organization, by
developing meaningful leisure opportunities, taking or teaching classes, volunteering or becoming involved in the arts. You’ll meet people who think and act differently from you, and who will broaden your personal and professional perspective

6. Self-assessment questions, applicable for organizations and individuals: What is
Our Mission? Who Is Our Customer? What Does the Customer Value? What
Are Our Results? What is Our Plan?

7. Your personal legacy matters. What do you want to be remembered for? You don’t know how long you will live, and time is rarely sufficient for all the things you would like to accomplish: decide what needs to

The 2011 Best Practices for Government Libraries: e-Initiatives and e-Efforts:


Thursday, July 7, 2011

specific job responsibilities of the following in a typical library settings in Nigeria: (a) Cataloguer ( b) Systems librarian

1) Enumerate the specific job responsibilities of the following in a typical library settings in Nigeria: (a) Cataloguer ( b) Systems librarian

According to Kim (2003: 96-98) cataloguing is the process of creating entries for a catalogue. In libraries, this usually includes the bibliographic description, subject analysis, assignment of classification notation and other activities involved in physically preparing the item for the shelf. These tasks are usually performed under the supervision of a librarian trained as a cataloguer. There are two types of cataloguing, original cataloguing and copy cataloguing. Original cataloguing refers to the preparation of a bibliographic record from scratch, without the aid of a pre-existing catalogue record for the same edition which is time consuming for the cataloguer. Copy cataloguing involves the adaptation of a pre-existing bibliographic record from other bibliographic databases, such as OCLC or NUC, to fit the characteristics of the item in hand with modifications to correct obvious errors and minor adjustments to reflect locally accepted catalogue practice (Kim 2003: 105). Thus when cataloguers engage in the process of cataloguing, they are entering information about a book or any other item into the library’s catalogue so that when users search the catalogue, they find what they’re looking for or at least something that will help them find an answer to their question.


The specific job responsibilities of the cataloguer in a typical library setting in Nigeria include the following:
• Carry the primary responsibility for the development and maintenance of those parts of the catalog that pertain to collections under their jurisdiction. This means that all functions necessary for the creation and maintenance of the catalog that are not assigned to copy cataloging or authority control personnel or other support staff are part of the cataloger's responsibilities.
• Understand and effectively use standard tools for creating catalog records. Catalogers assume responsibility for their own continuing education and keep current on updates, developments and changes in standards and tools required for their work.
• Lead the way in researching new techniques and technologies for cataloging, share findings with colleagues, and make recommendations for implementation in department processes as appropriate.
• Coordinate with subject librarians to ensure that bibliographic access, collection arrangement, and cataloging priorities meet reference and collection management needs.
• Provide supervision to paraprofessionals and students under their direction.
• Perform original cataloging as required for collections assigned to them. Original cataloging includes 1) creation of a bibliographic record when no copy can be found in source files; 2) creation of a full bibliographic record when the only available copy is minimal, preliminary, or substandard; 3) reformatting available copy or re-cataloging to update standards or alter treatment.
• Perform or direct copy cataloging in the following areas: 1) non-book materials, including serials; 2) rare or other special collections items; 3) items in non-roman scripts; 4) other foreign language material lacking copy at time of receipt; and 5) items with copy containing errors or problems beyond the scope of copy cataloging personnel.
• Complete online processing of cataloged items, whether original or from copy in the above categories: transfer the record into the local system, enter appropriate holdings information, barcode and create item records, order cards as needed, issue command for export to RLIN, and deliver to the lettering room.
• Determine appropriate treatments for series or multipart items, except in cases where the default treatment (fully analyzed, traced, and classified separately) has already been established in the national authority file, in which case the Copy Cataloging Team may process the items without consulting the cataloger. In all instances, however, catalogers retain authority to change treatment of previously cataloged items in order to improve access or meet local needs.
• Determine appropriate classification for items when no useable call number is found with copy, or when specialized classification is required, e.g. as with subject bibliography or Mormon literature.
• Establish unique headings for bibliographic entities, resolve conflicts between new and existing headings, create original authority records, and modify existing authority records as needed.
• Assist with retrospective conversion and reclassification of collections in their assigned subject areas. This includes formulating classification numbers and resolving problems as needed.
• Carry the final responsibility for resolution of problems and errors in their assigned areas.
• Have authority in all instances to alter bibliographic copy, treatments, or classification of previously cataloged materials in their assigned collections in order to achieve optimum bibliographic control and access.

A systems librarian is a librarian who is responsible for managing the information technology used in a library. The Systems and Technology Development Librarian provides the guidance to shape and sustain the Library’s use of technology to advance library services and operations.

The Systems and Technology Development Librarian provides the guidance to shape and sustain the Library’s use of technology to advance library services and operations

Essential job responsibilities of a system librarian include the following:
• Maintains the Local Area Network, computers, servers and related peripherals within the library.
• Delivers responsive services rapidly and effectively to meet the needs of library users and staff.
• Provides training associated with the introduction of new technologies.
• Provides quality PC hardware and software support; prepares user documentation.
• Performs system upgrades, new installations, backups, and distributes computer technology assets.
• Customizing software
• Consults with other staff members regarding projects that involve existing computer technology or planned implementation of new technology and library systems.
• Participates in library-wide planning and policy development.
• Performs periodic maintenance of the electronic database and the library website to include updates, enhancements, and functionality.
• Documenting and/or inventorying current technologies in use in the library
• Tests and evaluates new electronic products.
• Troubleshooting
• The systems librarian will participate along with other team members in the design and coordination of statistical and managerial reports and overall staff training

• Participates in policy and procedure development for the use of networked microcomputers.
• Acts as liaison between internal/external customers and vendors.
• keep abreast of developments in library technologies to maintain current awareness of information tools in order to meet the needs of students, faculty, staff, and community users of the University
• miscellaneous technology support



Tuesday, July 5, 2011


The Department of library, Archival and Information Studies (LARIS) librarian, Emeaghara, N. Evelyn (Mrs.) had a practical session on CDS/ISIS with LARIS post graduate student (MLIS I).

Computerized Documentation System/Integrated Set of Information System (CDS/ISIS) is an information management system dealing with predominantly non-numerical data elements, which are stored in database. CDS/ISIS was developed by United Nations Education Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).

The CDS/ISIS version 1.4 software package is used in LARIS Departmental Library and WEDLIS is the most recent version of CDS/ISIS. It has search modules, data entry modules, print enabled and import enabled. CDS/ISIS have many distinctive features which gives you more control over the way you work as well as enabling you to use more of the power of the computer.

It allows you to have more than one CDS/ISIS database open.
CDS/ISIS was developed for bibliographic information, i.e. information about documents such as books, journal articles or conference proceedings. Titles of books and other works which are contained in a bibliographic record may be of any length, from one word to many. CDS/ISIS is protected by copyright and is in no way shareware or public domain. It can be used legally only by license holders. This license is not as restrictive as some commercially produced software packages, in that multiple copying of the software is permitted within an institution that is a license holder. UNESCO has appointed distributors throughout the world to assist in supplying it to those who wish to use it.

CDS/ISIS software is made up of files, which contain elementary data elements that could be defined and manipulated in various was such as: define databases worksheet entry, enter new record, modify-correct and delete records, automatically build and maintain fast access files to each database, retrieve records, sort records, display the records, print catalogues and indexes.CDS/ISIS uses inverted files to enable faster searching of the database. An inverted file is just another name for an index. It is possible to index each field in a number of ways using different indexing techniques. The expression refers to the fact that the records are turned inside out to bring different elements from the contents to the fore in a file.

A database is usually constructed to store information about some things or persons. For example, a bibliographic database contains information about documents, such as journal articles or conference proceedings. The database consists of records and there is generally a one-to-one correspondence between the records and the things described. A record is made up of a number of fields. Each field contains data about some particular aspects. For example, the author, title and date in a bibliographic database.
• Choice of Tagging Scheme: Decide on a format, i.e. what fields will b used and how you will record the data in them.
• Field Definition Table: It defines the fields that may be present in the database and certain parameters for each field.
• Default Display Format: Means the way that the records will appear when you display search results. It can also be used in producing printed output.
• Field Selection Table: the selection of terms from the database records to go on to index file is controlled by the field selection table.
• Stopword List: Words on the stopword list will not be indexed using indexing techniques (though they may still appear as part of phrases produced with other indexing techniques).
• Choice of Indexing Technique
• Database Parameter File: When a database is created, the system places it automatically in the data subfolder.
• Database EXP File: In this display the screen is divided into two panels, the left one containing a list of record numbers and right one containing some tips on how to use the display window.

Monday, July 4, 2011


On the 9th of March, 2011, post graduate students in the Department of Library, Archival and Information Studies paid a scheduled visit to Collection Development Section of Kenneth Dike Library, University of Ibadan.

We were received by the Head – Collection Development Section.
Collection development involves selecting, acquiring and weeding of information materials in the library. It is a process of planning stock acquisition programme not only for the immediate library users, but also, to build a reliable collection over a period of time.

Collection development principle is based on the goals, aims and objectives of the parent institution (university), objectives of the library, subject matter, availability of funds etc.
Selection of information materials is performed to reflect community analysis, collection development policy, selection policy, acquisition and evaluation.

Some selection tools used in selecting information materials include:
• Books in print
• National Bibliography of Nigeria (NBN)
• Publishers catalog
• Internet surfing
• Publishers announcements
• Ulrich’s International Periodical Directory (serials)
• Desiderata (suggestions made by library users)

Acquisition of materials could be through any or combination of the following:
• Purchase/Subscription
• Gifts and Exchange
• Legal Deposit
• Standing order with vendor

Selection of information materials are made from available sources, bibliographic verification of the selected materials are carried out, procurement of the selected materials is advertised in the tender’s board or notice board, contract for the procurement is awarded, successful vendors/publishers write letter of acceptance, information materials are supplied, they verified to check for inadequacies, stamped, accessioning numbers are assigned and then recorded in the accessioning register.


On the 9th of March, 2011, post graduate students in the Department of Library, Archival and Information Studies paid a scheduled visit to Collection Development Section of Kenneth Dike Library, University of Ibadan.

We were received by the Head – Collection Development Section.
Collection development involves selecting, acquiring and weeding of information materials in the library. It is a process of planning stock acquisition programme not only for the immediate library users, but also, to build a reliable collection over a period of time.

Collection development principle is based on the goals, aims and objectives of the parent institution (university), objectives of the library, subject matter, availability of funds etc.
Selection of information materials is performed to reflect community analysis, collection development policy, selection policy, acquisition and evaluation.

Some selection tools used in selecting information materials include:
• Books in print
• National Bibliography of Nigeria (NBN)
• Publishers catalog
• Internet surfing
• Publishers announcements
• Ulrich’s International Periodical Directory (serials)
• Desiderata (suggestions made by library users)

Acquisition of materials could be through any or combination of the following:
• Purchase/Subscription
• Gifts and Exchange
• Legal Deposit
• Standing order with vendor

Selection of information materials are made from available sources, bibliographic verification of the selected materials are carried out, procurement of the selected materials is advertised in the tender’s board or notice board, contract for the procurement is awarded, successful vendors/publishers write letter of acceptance, information materials are supplied, they verified to check for inadequacies, stamped, accessioning numbers are assigned and then recorded in the accessioning register.


On the 22nd of March, 2011, post graduate students in the Department of Library, Archival and Information Studies, had a practical session on reference sources and services at the Reference Section of Kenneth Dike Library, University of Ibadan.

The class was grouped into two groups. On arrival, group two was received by the Head of reference Section – Vincent, A.
The reference section is divided into two open and closed access. In the open access, library users are free to make use of the reference materials, thus, access to such materials are unhindered. The closed access is a restricted area. Library users are denied access to the area, as well as the information materials contained in it. Most materials in the closed access are legal deposit materials.

The reference section is to provide effective and efficient reference services to library users. Such services include: answering users query, educating them on the availability of reference sources and how they are used. Other duties performed by the reference librarian are: registration of patrons/users and organizing the reference section.
Some of the reference materials available in the reference section include:
• Subject encyclopedia
• General encyclopedia
• Dictionaries
• Government publications
• Gazette
• Bibliography
• Year books
• Maps and atlas
• Thesis – 1948-1995, 1996-date
• Engineering abstracts
• Humanities abstract.

The primary objective of the reference section is to satisfy the information needs of library users.

Sunday, July 3, 2011


The National Library of Nigeria is the apex Library in the country. It was established by Act No. 29 of 1979 and has responsibility for the development and provision of Library and information Services in Nigeria.
The acquisition policy of the National Library does not include textbooks for Primary and Secondary schools but tertiary materials.
The national Library takes cognizance of the purposes and resources of other libraries in the vicinity and will cooperate with other libraries objectives. Selection of expensive or specialized materials contained in the collections of other libraries like those of Nigeria Law School and College of Medicine are generally avoided in areas where they are located.

a) Subject areas are allocated to librarians for selection.
b) All the titles selected are checked against the catalogue for titles already purchased to avoid duplication.
c) Materials selected on the subject areas are collated by the Head of Division for submission to Head of department
d) The Head of Department cross-checks the list of materials selected
e) The list is forwarded to Director/CEO for approval.
f) Contract for procurement of books are advertised in the Federal Tenders Journal and in all Notice Boards of the National Library of Nigeria including state branches
g) Book Vendors/Publishers that bid for the contract are invited for opening of bids, it should be noted that the lowest bidder may not necessarily be awarded the contract if he fails to meet up with the specifications.
h) All the bids are evaluated by Evaluation Committee and recommendation for award of contract submitted to Procurement Planning Committee.
i) Procurement planning Committee sits and considers the evaluation and recommendation of the Evaluation Committee and makes its own decision.
j) PPC conveys its decision and recommendation to the Tenders Board for consideration and approval.
k) The Tenders Board meet and consider the recommendation of PCC and approval for award of contract made to the successful candidate.
l) The successful Book Vendor (s)/Publisher(s) are communicated and required to write a letter of acceptance of the offer to execute the job.
m) After the execution of the job, the book vendor (s)/publisher(s) forward a letter for job completion and requests for payment.
n) The newly acquired materials are received form book vendor (s)/publisher (s) along with the invoices(s).
o) Materials are received by staff of the Procurement Unit form book vendor(s)/publisher(s).
p) The staffs of the National Library stores are invited to cross-check the materials supplied against the invoice(s).
q) The National Library Stores certify the materials received and issue a Stores Receipt Voucher (SRV).
r) Materials are checked physically against the titles supplied to ensure that the titles and quantity correspond with the details on the invoice(s) and that they are physically in good condition.
s) The National Library internal auditors are invited to cross-check the materials supplied against the invoice(s).
t) The internal auditors certify the materials received.
u) Memo recommending payment will be forwarded to the PPC
v) The PPC confirm that the job is properly done, that is, the books supplied are physically in good condition and there after approve the certificate of payment.
w) Materials are stamped with ownership stamp and provided with accession numbers.
x) Materials are recorded in the accession register.

The National Library of Nigeria serves as the legal depository of the nation in accordance with the National Library Act No.29 of 1970. NLN collects legal deposit materials prints and non-print materials from private/commercial, federal and state government agencies. Private publishers are to deposit three (3) copies each of their publications, federal government and its agencies are to deposit twenty five (25) copies each of their publications and state government and its agencies are to deposit ten (10) copies each of their publications.
Receipt of Legal Deposit Materials
All legal deposit materials are collected through the following ways:
• Publishers deposit their materials directly to the National Library Nigeria offices in Abuja and twenty (23) state branches.
• During visits to publishing houses and government establishments within the area of coverage.
• On-the-spot collection at book lunch/book fairs.
• Collection at state branches.
• Some materials are also received by post

Information materials are acquired into the National Library of Nigeria through gifts and exchange. These materials are donation (solicited and unsolicited) from individuals and organizations within and outside the country. NLN does not reject any information materials acquired through gifts and exchange.

• All correspondence (s) are addressed to the Office of the Director/Chief Executive Officer National Library of Nigeria
• All mails/parcels received are forwarded to the Head of Department
• The Head of Department sends the mails/parcels to the Head of Section for documentation.
• Acknowledgement letters are sent to both donors and partners.
• Materials are stamped with gifts stamp
• Materials are recorded in the register indicating date of receipt, name and address of donor/partner, edition, number of copies and the format of materials, i.e. Serials, monographs and non-book.

• In-Process file
• Accession Register
• Book vendors/publishers addresses
• United Nations Serials Ledger
• United Nation Monographs Ledger
• Foreign Serials Ledger
• Canadian Documents Ledger


On the 5th of April, 2011, Masters, Library and information Science students paid a scheduled excursion to the International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan. The excursion was led by the Dr. A. Adetiminrin, and we were received by the library manager- Mrs. Ezemo.

The International Institute of tropical Agriculture (IITA) is a nonprofit organization founded in 1967, governed by a Board of Trustees, and supported by several countries.

The International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) is one of the world's leading research partners in finding solutions for hunger, malnutrition, and poverty. IITA research for development addresses the development needs of tropical countries. IITA work with partners to enhance crop quality and productivity, reduce producer and consumer risks, and generate wealth from agriculture.

The Library Service provides easy and quick access to information that scientists, visiting scientists, collaborators, training participants, and students need to work productively and cost effectively regardless of location.

The library subscribes to a variety of print and non-print materials and provides access to the full text of about 145 electronic journal titles and databases. The library database has over 113,000 records and the public catalog is accessible on the Web. The collection is mainly in English and some in French. The photo library consists mainly of digitized slides and can be accessed through the image database and also through Flickr.

The bibliography is built on open access called AGOR with full text and has over 6700 records. Most of their publication used to be in print and are kept in the closed access, but efforts are been made presently to digitize all published materials. The library of congress classification scheme is used for the classification of library materias.
In its futuristic plans, IITA library hopes to be a regional hub for agriculture.

The library offers the following services:
• Online access to the full text of current journal articles in 132 journals via Swetswise (in collaboration with all the other CG Center libraries).
• Access to the full text of journal articles in 145 journals via TEEAL (1993−2005).
• Electronic access to various databases such as CABDIRECT, CGVLibrary (Centralized access to libraries, catalogs and databases held by the CGIAR centers), and AJOL (African Journals Online).
• Internet/Database searches and retrievals.
• Electronic delivery of documents regardless of location.
• Library catalog on the Web.
• Interlibrary loan (local and international).
• Access to images in the image gallery.
• Reference service via e-mail, live-support requests, phone, or at the Circulation desk.
• Lending of books and journals.
• Selective Dissemination of Information (SDI).
• Distribution of relevant IITA publications and knowledge materials.

IITA use’s Inmagic software as its library software. The Inmagic library software is a full-featured library management system that combines highly flexible information management tools with a web-based integrated library system (ILS) to easily manage, publish, and access library and resource centre assets.

Inmagic’s workgroup tools and publishing capabilities are integrated with its successful library automation system, to deliver a Web-based integrated library system (ILS) combined with flexible information management tools:

Inmagic's DB/TextWorks is a text-database product that is a combination of database and text retrieval software that enables you to build networked and standalone text bases to manage diverse types of information including text, images, and multimedia.

Inmagic is uniquely suited to meet the ever-changing information needs of special and corporate libraries. Designed for information professionals within workgroups, Inmagic is ideal for single-or multi-site libraries and resource centers requiring a single catalogue to cover multiple collections. It delivers all-inclusive library management functionality, delivered through a streamlined, easy-to-use interface.

Inmagic can complete a keyword search across 100,000 records in less than one second while the same search in a standard DBMS can take more than a minute. The difference comes from DB/Textworks' ability to index every word in a textbase.

You can execute complex queries by entering words and phrases in search prompts for each field or groups of fields. Choose from a variety of Boolean operators (AND, OR, NOT) and specify the selection criteria, such as dates, keywords, phrases, ranges, and proximity relationships, to broaden or narrow your searches.

The Inmagic library software is an integrated collection anchored by Genie ILS which provides you with all-inclusive library management functionality. The software modules include: acquisition, cataloguing, serials, loans, reports and system administrator.


There are diverse information needs of an undergraduate. Such information needs include:

It is imperative that all new and returning students register for their courses, accommodation, medical etc.
All students are advised to read the course guide and select the required compulsory units’ courses and elective units’ courses for the academic session.


For undergraduates, information literacy encompasses a broad spectrum of abilities, including the ability to recognize and articulate information needs; to locate, critically evaluate, and organize information for a specific purpose; and to recognize and reflect on the ethical use of information.

Undergraduates, who are in need for financial assistance, request for possible avenue where additional funds could be sourced to further their programme.


Undergraduates, who communicate effectively, use spoken and written language to construct a message that demonstrates the communicator has established clear goals and has considered her or his audience. Effective messages are organized and presented in a style appropriate to the context.

For undergraduates who are offered courses other than the one applied for, they seek information on how to change such course to the most preferred one.


Undergraduates, who exercise quantitative and scientific reasoning use and apply these reasoning processes to explain phenomena in the context of everyday life.
Quantitative reasoning includes statistical and/or logical problem-solving, the relationships between quantities, and the use and misuse of quantitative data. Scientific reasoning introduces students to the evolution and interdependence of science and technology and includes problem identification, hypothesis evaluation, experimentation, and interpretation of results and the use and misuse of scientific data.

Undergraduates, undertaking various research programme are often faced with how to get the right audience to fill their survey forms for research purposes.

For undergraduates, knowing who their academic advisor would guide them on towing the right path in their academic activities.

Students desire to know where the bookshop is located and what materials are available in the bookshop in order to purchase writing and other academic materials.

Undergraduates, who use interdisciplinary thinking, recognize the world presents problems, topics, or issues too complex to be satisfactorily addressed though a single lens. Thus, they apply multiple perspectives, paradigms, and frameworks to problems, topics, or issues.

Student mentoring help undergraduate student in school especially during their first year and through their course duration to settle in and find out more about the course programme. The experience of the mentors is shared with the new undergraduate.

The procedure for payment, tuition fees, designated banks or venues, payment deadline etc are some of the information needs of an undergraduate in order to make the right payment at the right time.

Undergraduates, who think critically recognize an object of investigation, frame questions about it, and interrogate assumptions—explicit or implicit. Critical thinking includes the evaluation of evidence, analysis and synthesis of multiple sources, and reflection on varied perspectives.

Transportation means and transportation system and parking lots are information needs of undergraduate that would facilitate his/her mobility.

Information on Library location, library hours, library materials and library usage would enhance the effective utilization of the library by the undergraduate.

Information on available scholarships, mode of participation, requirement for qualification and duration of the scholarship would facilitate maximum participation of the programme by the undergraduate.

The location of banks would enable undergraduate carryout their financial transaction.

Saturday, July 2, 2011


Mastering the art of soccer passing is a must if you want to perform well as a soccer player. Without good passing skills your time on the field will be short. Passing is so simple but still so difficult. It may look simple when professional players find each other with long and precise passes, but these players have spent thousands of hours on a soccer field practicing soccer passing.

You should always try to pass the ball simple. Simple meanS that passing the ball to a nearby standing teammate should always be your first option. Providing your teammates with quality passing especially when you are under pressure is also a moment where you need to be calm and try to find an easy solution. In order to become good at passing, you also need to become familiar with the different type of passes such as: push pass, wall pass and chip pass, and the various ways in which they are used.
Use your soccer dribbling skills in the right situations
Dribbling is not about cool soccer moves and you should never use this skill just to increase your personal glory; instead, use it to your team's advantage. Never dribble if you have an unmarked teammate near you. Passing the ball safely to a near teammate is more effective than a dribbling solo raid. The optimal rule is to never dribble in your own half. However, you should try to dribble often in your opponent’s 18 yard box. The advantage with dribbling is that your opponents will not know what you aim to do next. to stop you, opponents will need to figure out which way you will most likely go.

Try to relax
Soccer dribbling is not just about how skillful you are with the ball; you need also to have a lot of confidence in yourself. When dribbling you must really think that you can get around your defender. Try not to panic while receiving the ball. Instead, be calm and try to figure out the best way to get around your opponent.

Balance is important
The main mission when dribbling a soccer ball is to get around your opponent and make him/her lose balance. At the same time you need of course to maintain your own balance as well.

Equilibrium and soccer dribbling
If your feet are together, the equilibrium of your body will be less. This is because your center of gravity may fall outside the area that is created by your feet.
Soccer Nutrition and Carbohydrates
The slow and fast running which utilized may easily deplete glycogen stores. To avoid that you need to eat quality carbohydrates.

The main energy source for muscles is the glycogen fuels. Glycogen is produced from carbohydrates (apples, bananas, bread, milk etc). It is vital for your performance to have enough glycogen. If not, you will have a fatigue felling, your concentration will be poor and recovering from a match/practice will take longer time.
Head banging
This is a common head injury in soccer. It usually occurs when you and an opponent attempt to head the ball at the same moment. Collision of this type may result in a concussion, a cut or a serious neck injury. Broken noses, cheeks and jaws are also common.

The groin is one of the most common soccer related injuries and is really hard to avoid. The best method for healing this type of injury is rest. If you are unlucky you could be forced to stay off the field for several weeks. One thing you can do to minimize the risk of groin injury is to warm up properly.

The Knee injuries can be mild to varying degrees of severity. Some ligament sprains just require rest, while others may require reconstructive surgery. If you suffer a real serious knee injury you will usually need approximately six months to recover from it.

Dislocations of the knee-cap are a common soccer injury, especially for female soccer players. Sometimes braces can be used after an injury to provide increased protection to your knee. You may also use it to prevent a knee injury.

Meniscus tears and ligament soccer injuries are usually a result from pivoting or sudden deceleration stresses. Stretching and a proper soccer warm up can help prevent you avoid them. Treatments are rest, ice, compression and elevation. Formal physical therapy for rehabilitation is also needed in most cases.

Ankle injury is in the form of varying degrees of ligament tears. The basic treatment can be ice, elevation, compressions and a splint. Fractures are not uncommon and all ankle injuries with accompanied swelling should have an evaluation by a specialist. If you suspect a fracture be sure to consult a specialist directly.


Reference service is more than answering questions. Discovering and meeting information needs is a process that involves finding the real information need behind the questions. The reference process involves open communication between you and the patron, working until the need is met.
It is the obligation of the library staff to provide the best service possible in order to meet the needs of its users. Not only is it a basic obligation of the library to see that its patron/users are well served, but quality reference and information services result in excellent public relations in which the library is held in high regard by its local citizens.

The user’s need cannot be met unless the librarian understands the question. Often the patron fails to clearly state the need. The librarian’s adage- the first question asked is not the real need-is often true. In order to determine the need, the librarian must be skilled at asking questions. This process of question negotiated is termed the ‘reference interview’. The primary objectives of the reference interview are to determine the real need as well as how much and what kind of data is needed.
In addition to learning what kind and how much information the user needs, the librarian often must determine whether basic or more sophisticated information is appropriate. It also may be important to learn what information the patron has already gathered in order to avoid duplication. Knowing when the information is needed is essential if the question is likely to result in a complex search.

1. Encouraging the patron to contact the library when there is information need (outreach).
2. Finding out what the real information need is (the reference interview).
3. Finding the information that will meet the need (reference search).
4. Making sure the patron's need really has been met (follow-up).
An under graduate comes into the library requesting for information regarding Nigeria general election result. In order to provide the needed information that would satisfy her information need, the following conversation took place;
Patron: have you got anything on Nigeria general election results?
Librarian: what type of information would you like about Nigeria general election?
Patron: I’m writing a paper on the election results
Librarian: which of the election results would you need, 1979, 1993, 1999, 2003, 2007, 2011 election results?
Patron: the 2011 April general election
Librarian: which of the April election in particular, national or state assemblies, governorship or presidential election results
Patron: all election results conducted in April.
Librarian: would you like a comprehensive list of the political parties involved, the contestants, the type of election and results?
Patron: yes. That would be great.

Once the need has been established, the next step is to find the answer. Answering questions is problem solving. The patron presents a problem, and the librarian, having clarified it through an interview, attempts to find a solution. Considering the fact the election was held couple of weeks back, the internet would be the most preferred reference source. I would search the internet to get reliable web sites that provide adequate information to the patron’s need.

The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) to serve billions of users worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks, of local to global scope, that are linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless and optical networking technologies. The Internet carries a vast range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents of the World Wide Web (WWW) and the infrastructure to support electronic mail.
The Internet, sometimes called simply "the Net," is a worldwide system of computer networks - a network of networks in which users at any one computer can, if they have permission, get information from any other computer (and sometimes talk directly to users at other computers).
The "internet" is a gigantic library, as well as a world-wide message board, telephone network, and publishing medium. It is open 24 hours a day, and you can find anything you want there, and say anything you want, as well as current events and blogs, information about almost any subject is available in depth and up to date. This is incredibly valuable for every subject you can imagine. Almost every college and government research organization is "on the web", along with libraries, educational institutions, associations, and many commercial directories and sites,
• Information on the Internet can be hyperlinked. This permits both information professionals to assemble large bodies of information from a wide variety of sources without actually having to store the information in one place; e.g., on paper or a hard disk.
• Hyperlinks within information on the Internet enable users to find or cite additional sources of pertinent information.
• Information on the Internet is searchable. Search engines such as Google enable users to find information on every imaginable topic.
• Intelligent agents can be programmed to search the Internet for particular information and inform the user of the existence and location of that information. In fact, these agents can harvest pertinent information and deliver it to the user's desktop.
• Information on the Internet originates from world-wide sources.
• The internet provides current information

After a thorough internet search, the following websites were found to contain useful and reliable information with regards to 2011 April general election results.
II. Follow the events via Twitter ::: INEC News ::: News Sources (local) ::: News Sources (International)
III. INEC website: The Official umpire - Read about the organization ::: Download the election rules ::: Reports ::: Election time-table ::: List of Political parties
IV. Presidential Candidates: Analysis of some candidates >> PointBlank ::: The Nigerian Voice
XII. General Muhammadu Buhari: Website ::: News (Local) ::: News International
XIII. President Goodluck Jonathan: Website ::: News (Local) ::: News International
XIV. Malam Nuhu Ribadu: Website ::: News (Local) ::: News International
XV. Governor Ibrahim Shekarau: Website ::: News (Local) ::: News International


Information need is an individual or group's desire to locate and obtain information to satisfy a conscious or unconscious need. The ‘information’ and ‘need’ in ‘information need’ are inseparable interconnection. Needs and interests call forth information. My personal information needs include the following:

Continuing education is vital to staying current with trends and updates in the library profession. Ours is a field that continually adjusts to include innovations and new technology. This dynamic environment leads to changes in job duties and what it means to be a librarian. Participating in post graduate education with University of Ibadan, Department of Library, Archival and Information Studies (LARIS) will provide me with the opportunity to learn new skills and adapt to a changing profession.

Naturally, parents want to instill a can-do attitude in their kids so that they'll bravely take on new challenges and, over time, believe in themselves. Parents can help by giving kids lots of opportunities to practice and master their skills, letting kids make mistakes and being there to boost their spirits so they keep trying. Respond with interest and excitement when kids show off a new skill, and reward them with praise when they achieve a goal or make a good effort.

Kids start developing their sense of self as babies when they see themselves through their parents' eyes. Your tone of voice, your body language, and your every expression are absorbed by your kids. Your words and actions as a parent affect their developing self-esteem more than anything else.
Praising accomplishments, however small, will make them feel proud; letting kids do things independently will make them feel capable and strong. By contrast, belittling comments or comparing a child unfavorably with another will make kids feel worthless.
Choose your words carefully and be compassionate. Let your kids know that everyone makes mistakes and that you still love them, even when you don't love their behavior.

Make a point of finding something to praise every day. Be generous with rewards — your love, hugs, and compliments can work wonders and are often reward enough. Soon you will find you are "growing" more of the behavior you would like to see.
Discipline is necessary in every household. The goal of discipline is to help kids choose acceptable behaviors and learn self-control. They may test the limits you establish for them, but they need those limits to grow into responsible adults.

A program which provides employee with counseling and information about the content of jobs, as well as how i must prepare to become a competitive applicant in the selection process.
A program that provides increased career opportunities by helping me qualify for promotion within my organization or to advance across organizational lines.

It is upsetting to think about, but the foods I eat to stay healthy can make me sick. Fortunately, there are many things I can do to protect myself and my family from foodborne illness. Be sure that your refrigerator and freezer are the right temperature for storing food
• Refrigerate or freeze perishable foods right away
• Throw away anything that looks or smells suspicious. If you think a food might be bad, don't taste it!
• Wash your hands well before preparing food
• Keep your work area, wash rags and utensils clean
• Cook meats thoroughly

Friday, July 1, 2011

Twenty-First Century Skills

What the Framework for 21st century learning does is combine all the skills that are necessary to successfully survive in the 21st century and beyond; with the purpose of stating unequivocally that this is what education today must equip students with. This means that we can no longer afford to leave it to luck or chance of a fortunate minority, but have to ensure that all are equipped with these skills that are necessary to survive in our increasingly complex and changing world.

20th Century Library
Primarily content driven
Library as repositories for resources for job seekers
Mostly tangible objects
Library building as destination for resources
Library uses website and newsletter to share information
Focus on presentation and display
Library provides programs and exhibits
Acts independently
Located in community
Learning outcomes assumed, implied
Library provides training in basic skills
Access to resources during opening hours
Predominantly a faceless organization
Rigid and committed

21st Century Library
Audience and content driven
Library enlists input to identify changing community needs and remains nimble and timely in responding to those needs
Tangible and digital objects
Library’s electronic resources and online presence recognized as expanded collection of resources and services
Library provides options for public input and develops cross-community partnerships, leveraging social media outlets
Focus on audience engagement, experiences
Library enlists community representatives to help teach, mentor and exchange skills
Acts in highly collaborative partnerships
Library develops lasting and impactful partnerships on behalf of community needs
Embedded in community
Library is recognized as community hub
Learning outcomes purposeful
Library programs include consideration of 21st century skills as learning outcomes for audiences.
24/7 access to resources
More visibility and interaction with librarians having blogs and twitter accounts
Flexible, adaptive and learning

21st century skills
• Communication and collaboration
• Flexibility and adaptability
• Productivity and accountability
• Information literacy
• ICT (Information, communications and technology) literacy
• Communication and collaboration
• Media literacy
• ICT - Apply technology effectively
• Communication and collaboration
• Creativity and innovation
• Communication and collaboration
• Critical thinking and problem solving
• Integral / Essential
• Information literacy
• Media literacy
• ICT literacy
• Flexibility and adaptability
• Work independently
• Be self-directed learners
• Guide and lead others
• Responsibility to others
• Flexibility and adaptability
• Produce results

Yvonne Krishnan

LJ's New Landmark Libraries

The quest to identify the the most inspiring and innovative public libraries names ten winning public libraries and ten honorable mentions. Library Journal is proud to present its inaugural list of New Landmark Libraries. These ten public libraries, plus ten Honorable Mentions, will inspire and inform any building project.

At LJ, after years of covering new library construction and renovations and exploring innovations in design, we realized that librarians could use a master list of the best libraries to study, in person or virtually, for models and insight into coming trends. From a national pool of nominations, the judges chose ten New Landmark Libraries and ten Honorable Mentions.

200-year-old library book returned to Camden

The worn leather book might be riddled with tiny wormholes and have pages that are yellowed by time. The stamp inside a book published in 1790 shows that it was the property of the "Federal Society Library in Cambden, in the County of Lincoln," the first library established in Camden

But two centuries after being part of Camden’s very first lending library, Oliver Goldsmith’s 1790 “History of England, Vol. 1,” has come home at last to the delight of astonished local librarians.