Friday, December 30, 2011

LIBRARY RESOURCES AND THEIR ROLE IN EDUCATION

INTRODUCTION
Over the years, many libraries have supported education efforts by providing teaching resources, information and referral services. A more active approach has been taken by libraries offering educational classes or one-to-one tutoring programs. Many libraries have outreach programs designed to meet the needs of specific groups of people with limited educational skills. Library resource materials are distributed to the institutionalized, including those in prisons, hospitals, rehabilitation centers, and group homes for the elderly and disabled.
In addition, some libraries offer programs for groups at risk for education-related problems. Adolescents have been targeted because lack of education has been associated with other problems including crime, pregnancy, unemployment, drug and alcohol abuse, and school failure. After-school and summer educational programs have sought to encourage young people to become employable, contributing members of the community and generally to raise their self-esteem. Strategies have included homework help sessions, peer tutoring, and peer-group reading sessions.
Families have been targeted because lack of education seems to be passed from one generation to the next: children whose parents are functionally uneducated are twice as likely as their peers to be functionally uneducated. In family educational programs, emphasis is on the parent's role as the child's first teacher. Parents, who may have been inspired to seek education training by concern for their children, are taught interactive language activities for use with infants and young children. Some libraries invite entire families to share in reading activities and book talks, with each member borrowing a book to take home.
Man's quest for knowledge has led to the creation and accumulation of tremendous amount of information. This quest for knowledge knows no bounds and limits and is never satisfied. It has continued since the dawn of civilization to the modern age. This hard-earned knowledge and information is valuable for the entire mankind and therefore liable to be preserved. With the invention of paper man has been able to convey this knowledge to others by writing books. Thousands of manuscripts have been written by the wise men of the earlier times but many of them were destroyed due to the lack of proper means of preservation. With the invention of printing press, it became easier to preserve the knowledge in the form of printed documents. This led to the generation of a large number of books. The need for the preservation and dissemination of information led to the establishment of more and more libraries. Thus libraries acquired a great importance in the civilized society for education and research. Libraries play a vital role in the development of any society by enhancing the cause of education and academic research. They cater to the information needs of thousands of peoples.
The development of Science and Technology (S & T) in the last two centuries has led to an information explosion. Rapid changes have taken place at a great pace. In order to meet the growing needs of users the library system has been greatly improved and upgraded to meet the new challenges. The services offered by libraries have also undergone a great change.
With the advent of new technologies in the field of computers and telecommunications, revolutionary changes have taken place in the field of Library and Information Science. The shape of traditional libraries containing a large number of printed documents is in the process of being transformed to paper less libraries containing a large number of digitized documents. The facilities offered by networking have not left libraries untouched. Modern libraries are not only digitized but networked also. This has led to the creation of virtual libraries i.e. libraries without walls through which the user has access to information at anytime, anywhere in the world by using the modern tools of communications, such as computers and Internet facilities.
Libraries in the new millennium are leaders in knowledge management. Librarians in universities are innovative in their use of the new information technologies to provide access to a range of multimedia sources. Today’s libraries teach students the information handling skills to last a lifetime.

The traditional image of the library as a quiet place of study, housing mostly print collections, is changing. The shifts in education methods, the impact of computer technology, and the diversity of students have caused libraries to organize resources and design services that meet and anticipate the new needs of study and teaching. Libraries organize collections and provide access and services that incorporate changes in teaching, learning and information technologies.

LIBRARY

A library is a collection of sources, resources, and services, and the structure in which it is housed; it is organized for use and maintained by a public body, an institution, or a private individual. It can mean the collection itself, the building or room that houses such a collection, or both. The term ‘library ‘has itself acquired a secondary meaning: "a collection of useful material for common use." This sense is used in fields such as computer science, mathematics, statistics, electronics and biology. It can also be used by publishers in naming series of related books, e.g. The Library of Anglo-Catholic Theology(Encarta, 2009).
Libraries are defined as organized collection of published and unpublished books and audiovisual materials with the aid of services of staff who are able to provide and interpret such material as required, to meet the informative research, educational and recreational needs of its users. Libraries are regarded as agencies through which sources of information of accumulated knowledge and experiences are selected, acquired, organized, preserved and disseminated to those who need them. Libraries are essential tools in learning at any level. It is the intellectual centre of the society containing records not only the intellectual but also of cultural, economic and social inclination. With the provision of wide variety of information sources, users of libraries are exposed to different information with their respective values. They also give users the opportunity to learn and continue learning throughout their lives
Libraries are established for the systematic collection, organization, preservation and dissemination of knowledge and information. It is very important for man to preserve and maintain the valuable knowledge and information contained in the books and documents because we want to preserve our knowledge and wisdom for the coming generations. By preserving the documents in a library this knowledge can be made available to others so that they can benefit from it. 
Library (institution), collection of books and other informational materials made available to people for reading, study, or reference. The word library comes from liber, the Latin word for “book.” (Encarta, 2009) However, library collections have almost always contained a variety of materials. Contemporary libraries maintain collections that include not only printed materials such as manuscripts, books, newspapers, and magazines, but also art reproductions, films, sound and video recordings, maps, photographs, microfiches, CD-ROMs, computer software, online databases, and other media. In addition to maintaining collections within library buildings, modern libraries often feature telecommunications links that provide users with access to information at remote sites.
The central mission of a library is to collect, organize, preserve, and provide access to knowledge and information. In fulfilling this mission, libraries preserve a valuable record of culture that can be passed down to succeeding generations. Libraries are an essential link in this communication between the past, present, and future. Whether the cultural record is contained in books or in electronic formats, libraries ensure that the record is preserved and made available for later use. Libraries provide people with access to the information they need to work, play, learn, and govern.
People in many professions use library resources to assist them in their work. People also use library resources to gain information about personal interests or to obtain recreational materials such as films and novels. Students use libraries to supplement and enhance their classroom experiences, to learn skills in locating sources of information, and to develop good reading and study habits. Public officials use libraries to research legislation and public policy issues. One of the most valued of all cultural institutions, the library provides information and services that are essential to learning and progress.
 At the elementary stage  library is referred to as:

(i)                               A collection of literacy documents or record kept for reference or  
borrowing
(ii)                             A depository house built to contain books and other materials for
reading and studying
(iii)                           A collection of standard programmes and subroutines that are stored
and available for immediate use.
(iv)          A building that houses a collection of books and other materials.

Advanced definitions of library (Islam, 2004-fm adio gboyega) however are as follows:
(i)        As a learned institution equipped with treasures of knowledge maintained, organized, and managed by trained personnel to educate the children, men and women continuously and assist in their self-improvement through an effective and prompt dissemination of information embodied in the resources.
(ii)       As an enabling factor to obtain spiritual, inspirational, and recreational activities through reading, and therefore the opportunity of interacting with the society’s wealth and accumulated knowledge.
(iii)      An instrument of self education, a means of knowledge and factual information, a centre of intellectual recreation, and a beacon of enlightenment that provides accumulated preserved knowledge of civilization which consequently enriches one’s mental vision, and dignifies his habit behaviour, character, taste, attitude, conduct, and outlook on life.
(iv)       As a place in which literary and artistic materials, such as books, periodicals newspapers, pamphlets, prints, records, and tapes, are kept for reading, reference, or lending.  In a digital sense, a library may be more than a building that houses a collection of books and other materials as the Internet has opened up an avalanche of online and electronic resources for accessing documents on various fields of interest.
(v)        As a collection of texts, images, etc, encoded so as to be stored, retrieved, and read by computer. 

Libraries have been identified as one of the key elements for open access to information, which is crucial to educational development. Public and institutional collections and services may be intended for use by people who choose not to — or cannot afford to — purchase an extensive collection themselves, who need material no individual can reasonably be expected to have, or who require professional assistance with their research. In addition to providing materials, libraries also provide the services of librarians who are experts at finding and organizing information and at interpreting information needs. Libraries often provide a place of silence for studying.

TYPES OF LIBRARY
The scope of a library as an effective aid to study and education is virtually multitudinous. There are different types of libraries, viz., (a) Special library, (b) Public library and (c) Academic library which contribute to education in various different ways.
(a) Academic Library 

They comprise of school libraries at the primary and secondary levels, College libraries, and University libraries whose prime objective is to meet the academic needs of the particular institution for which it is created to serve. The purpose of a University library differs, in varying degree, from that of a school or college library in that the former adheres extensive and particular emphasis to research projects apart from the curricular needs of the institution.  Besides aiding in the studies of children and assisting the teachers in their teaching and periodic research, a school library is primarily concerned to pro-create an urge for reading habit amongst the children who here get a first hand-knowledge to use the library resources most effectively in their future career.  This institution serves to build up a strong mental base and character of children.
Research plays a central role in the academic work of students and faculty at colleges and universities. As a result, college and university libraries—also called academic libraries—are often considered the most important resource of an institution of higher education. Because students and faculty at colleges and universities may wish to conduct research within any conceivable academic discipline, the collections of academic libraries usually reflect a vast range of interests and formats. Academic libraries range in size from the modest collections found in small liberal arts colleges to the immense collections found at research universities. Research universities maintain some of the largest libraries in the world. Most academic libraries are linked to other libraries in cooperative networks, enabling them to share scarce and little-used materials required for advanced research.

(b)Public Libraries,

This on the other hand is most often called “peoples’ University”, in a democratic society operated for the people by the people that conserves and organizes human knowledge in order to place if freely in the service of the community without any distinction of occupation, creed, class, religion, or ethnicity.  It is a university of the people since it is maintained and financed by the people of the community who freely throng in this institution and acquire knowledge that they need in their day to day life. 

The scope or command of a public library that meets specific but general requirements of the public thus remains quite broader in its vision.  It offers from the other types of libraries in that by offering opportunities of informal self-education, it inculcates reading habit amongst all types of general readers and, as a result, maintains a sizeable collection of newspapers, light literature, i.e., fictions, novels, story books, etc, for recreational studies, and a children’s corner equipped with juvenile literature.  Among its broad based functions to perform in educating the general public as well as the children, the following ones can be quoted:

(a)  It facilitates informal self-education of all people in the community;
(b)  Enriches and further develops the subject on which individuals are undertaking formal education;
(c)  Meets the informational needs of all;
(d) Creates and further develops civic sense and habits of the citizens;
(e) Supports educational, civic, and cultural activities of groups and organizations;
(f) Encourage wholesome recreation and constructive use of leisure time.
(g) Provides children, young people, men and women opportunity to:
         (i)   educate themselves continuously,
        (ii)   keep abreast of progress in all fields of knowledge, and
       (iii) maintain freedom of expression and constructively provides a critical attitude to all public issues and world affairs.




(c) Special Library

 A special library, which is concerned with literature of particular subject or group of subjects, in an institution which is created to serve the needs of some working organization, either a company, a research association or a government department.  It is often established to save time which the staff, either executive or research, would otherwise employ searching for information.
 Essentially, the special library has been historically, and remains today, an integral, functioning unit of the organization needs in order to build, prosper, advance, and achieve its ultimate ends”. 
Many corporations, private businesses, government agencies, museums, religious institutions, hospitals, associations, and other organizations maintain their own libraries to serve the specialized needs of their employees or members. These libraries are commonly called special libraries, but they may also be called information centers, research centers, or technical libraries. The collections of special libraries depend on the specific needs of the organizations they serve. For example, a law firm may maintain its own library of legal documents for use by its lawyers and staff, while a hospital may operate a library of materials in the health sciences to serve its doctors and nurses. In addition to performing the same functions as other libraries, special libraries evaluate, package, and present information to users in ways designed to increase productivity and add to the efficiency of their parent organization. They achieve these goals by reducing the time that employees spend searching for data and by providing information that facilitates improved decision making.
The highly specialized libraries do necessarily contain certain amount of materials on bordering or allied subjects for instance, the library of the Institute of Business Administration should include such subjects as economics, statistics, banks and banking, etc., beside the all embracing term ‘business and commerce’. The library of Pakistan Institute of Development Economics should again contain materials on accountancy, banking and finance, and statistics, while a library specially concerned with the literature relating to television engineering should contain materials on optics and lighting, beside the primarily concerned term ‘electronics’. This happens so usually in a special library for it aims at making available all the possible related materials on a particular topic chosen by a research scholar for research project.
 At a glance a special library which is specialized in a particular field of knowledge has a distinguishing mandate of which are:
·         Periodical literature is of prime importance and forms the major part of the collection;
·         Reports, standards, specification form a considerable quantity;
·          It files information rather than materials which calls for introduction of special techniques (mechanical indexing, information retrieval system, etc) for organizations;
·         Information here are up-to-date more than the text books, periodical literature or published reports;
·         It ensures quickest dissemination of information (SDI).


School Libraries
School libraries serve elementary schools, middle schools, junior high schools, and high schools. The main function of a school library is to support various educational programs and to develop students’ skills in locating and using information. Teachers use school libraries to access information needed to develop and support their classroom instruction. Students use the materials in school libraries to perform their class work. School libraries usually maintain collections in a variety of media. In addition to books, magazines, and newspapers, school libraries may contain photographs, films, sound and video recordings, computers, CD-ROMs, games, and maps. Some school libraries contain realia, or real artifacts such as various types of stones for the study of geology. An increasing number of school libraries have computer labs with computer workstations, software, and Internet connections. Because school libraries often emphasize the variety of media in their collections, they are sometimes referred to as library media centers. Most school libraries further enhance their collections by becoming members of school library networks; this allows them to share resources with libraries in other schools.


EDUCATION
Education refers to the process of learning and acquiring information. Education can be divided into two main types: formal learning through an institution such as a school and self-taught learning or what is often termed life experience. Generally, education is important for learning basic life skills, as well as learning advanced skills that can make a person more attractive in the job market.
Education, system of formal teaching and learning as conducted through schools and other institutions. Levels of education in modern societies can go from preschools to colleges and universities.

Education is not only an instrument of social change but viewed as an investment in the national development. Great educational revolutions achieve great economic evaluations. Education has the same importance as food and shelter and it is known to be essential to a life of an individual. As food is considered necessary for the health and shelter for the body, education is needed for the mind.
Education is assimilated and disseminated in a variety of ways. The least educated people are also instrumental in the propagation of knowledge ostensibly on the basis of lifelong experiences. Such information and knowledge is also imparted to children in their homes daily; however, a quantum leap in the advancement of knowledge demands well-equipped libraries, not only in universities but also in every educational institution.
Education in the largest sense is any act or experience that has a formative effect on the mind, character, or physical ability of an individual. In its technical sense, education is the process by which society deliberately transmits its accumulated knowledge, skills, and values from one generation to another.
·         Education is the process by which people learn:
·         Instruction refers to the facilitating of learning, by a tutor or teacher.
·         Teaching refers to the actions of an instructor to impart learning to the student.
·         Learning refers to those who are taught, with a view toward preparing them with specific knowledge, skills, or abilities that can be applied upon completion.



PRIMARY EDUCATION
Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 5–7 years of formal, structured education. In general, primary education consists of six or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six, although this varies between, and sometimes within, countries.
SECONDARY EDUCATION
In most contemporary educational systems of the world, secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. Depending on the system, schools for this period, or a part of it, may be called secondary or high schools. The exact meaning of any of these terms varies from one system to another . The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them, but is generally around the seventh to the tenth year of schooling. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. The purpose of secondary education can be to give common knowledge, to prepare for higher education or to train directly in a profession.
TERTIARY/HIGHER EDUCATION
Tertiary education, also called higher, third stage, or post secondary education, is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing a secondary education, such as a high school, secondary school. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education, as well as vocational education and training. Universities and colleges are the main institutions that provide tertiary education. Collectively, these are sometimes known as tertiary institutions. Tertiary education generally results in the receipt of certificates, diplomas or academic degrees.
Tertiary education includes teaching, research and social services activities of universities, and within the realm of teaching, it includes both the undergraduate level (sometimes referred to as higher education) and the graduate (or postgraduate) level (sometimes referred to as graduate school). Higher education generally involves work towards a degree-level or foundation degree qualification. Higher education is therefore very important to national development, both as a significant industry in its own right, and as a source of trained and educated personnel for the rest of the economy.

ADULT EDUCATION
Adult education has become common in many countries. It takes on many forms, ranging from formal class-based learning to self-directed learning and e-learning. Adult Education, all forms of schooling and learning programs in which adults participate. Unlike other types of education, adult education is defined by the student population rather than by the content or complexity of a learning program. It includes literacy training, community development, university credit programs, on-the-job training, and continuing professional education. Programs vary in organization from casual, incidental learning to formal college credit courses. Institutions offering education to adults include colleges, libraries, museums, social service and government agencies, businesses, and churches.

ALTERNATIVE EDUCATION
Alternative education also known as non-traditional education or educational alternative is a broad term that may be used to refer to all forms of education outside of traditional education (for all age groups and levels of education). This may include not only forms of education designed for students with special needs (ranging from teenage pregnancy to intellectual disability), but also forms of education designed for a general audience and employing alternative educational philosophies and methods.

DISTANCE EDUCATION

Methods of instruction that utilize different communication technologies to carry teaching to learners in different places. Distance education programs enable learners and teachers to interact with each other by means of computers, artificial satellites, telephones, radio or television broadcasting, or other technologies. Instruction conducted through the mail is often referred to as correspondence education, although many educators simply consider this the forerunner to distance education. Distance education is also sometimes called distance learning. While distance learning can refer to either formal or informal learning experiences, distance education refers specifically to formal instruction conducted at a distance by a teacher who plans, guides, and evaluates the learning process.



VOCATIONAL EDUCATION

Instruction in skills necessary for persons who are preparing to enter the labor force or who need training or retraining in the technology of their occupation.

The impact of technology on occupations, the tendency of employers to set higher educational requirements, and the need for employees with specialized training have made vocational preparation imperative. Part-time programs are essential in order to provide occupational mobility among workers and to overcome the effects of job obsolescence .
AUDIOVISUAL EDUCATION
Audiovisual Education, planning, preparation, and use of devices and materials that involve sight, sound, or both for educational purposes. Among the devices used are still and motion pictures, filmstrips, television, transparencies, audiotapes, records, teaching machines, computers, and videodiscs. The growth of audiovisual education has reflected developments in both technology and learning theory.
FEATURES OF EDUCATION:

1) Life long process: - Process of development from infancy to maturity.
2) Bipolar process: - Interplay of educator and educand.
3) Tripolar process :- Interplay of educator, educand and social process.
4) A deliberate process:- The educator is aware of his aim.
5) Preserver and Transmitter of heritage: - The cultural heritage is transmitted from generation to generation.
6) It is progressive: - Changes according to the needs and demands of the society.

PURPOSE/FUNCTION OF EDUCATION

·         Acquisition of information about the past and present: includes traditional disciplines such as literature, history, science, mathematics etc
·         Formation of healthy social and/or formal relationships among and between students, teachers, others
·         Capacity/ability to evaluate information and to predict future outcomes (decision-making)
·         Capacity/ability to seek out alternative solutions and evaluate them (problem solving)
·         Development of mental and physical skills: motor, thinking, communication, social, aesthetic
·         Knowledge of moral practices and ethical standards acceptable by society/culture
·         Capacity/ability to recognize and evaluate different points of view
·         Respect: giving and receiving recognition as human beings
·         Indoctrination into the culture
·         Capacity/ability to live a fulfilling life
·         Capacity/ability to earn a living: career education
·         Sense of well-being: mental and physical health
·         Capacity/ability to be a good citizen
·         Capacity/ability to think creatively
·         Cultural appreciation: art, music, humanities
·         Understanding of human relations and motivations
·         Acquisition/clarification of values related to the physical environment
·         Acquisition/clarification of personal values
·         Self-realization/self-reflection: awareness of one's abilities and goals
·         Self-esteem/self-efficacy

Why do we need education?
We need education because it improves a person’s knowledge. If a person has a good education, he can have the power to choose the way he can use his knowledge- he could either use it for the good of others or for destruction. Why do we need education? Education is necessary so that one’s knowledge into its maximum potential and it makes an individual a true intellectual. Education tells a man on how to make a decision and how to think.

Education is needed for the development of oneself, which is vital for the society. For both individuals and the nations, education is the key to the creation, application and the spread of knowledge, which will result to the improvement of the vibrant and globally aggressive financial systems.
We need education because it is one of the most important systems wherein history of a country, its culture and religion and education is the only way to unite the people and the country.


Education -It’s Importance in Life

Education is a process whereby you provide information and communicate with your trainees. Education is in fact essential. Knowledge is power, so to be educated is to be empowered. Education allows individuals to transcend poverty and ignorance, to become independent decision-making members of their society. Modern life is often ruthless and fast-moving; education offers a space wherein we can focus on psychological maturity and being self-reliant. The need for education has not changed since the dawn of history. It is important to concentrate on education for many reasons, including earning knowledge and the recognition of others in the field.
Types of Library Resources
Today's libraries are repositories and access points for print, audio, and visual materials in numerous formats, including maps, prints, documents, microform (microform/microfiche), CDs, cassettes, videotapes, DVDs, videogames, e-books, audio books (microfilm/microfiche), and many other electronic resources. Libraries often provide facilities to access to their electronic resources and the Internet. Modern libraries are increasingly being redefined as places to get unrestricted access to information in many formats and from many sources. They are extending services beyond the physical walls of a building, by providing material accessible by electronic means, and by providing the assistance of librarians in navigating and analyzing tremendous amounts of information with a variety of digital tools.
Because they serve such a diverse range of people, libraries maintain collections that can span the spectrum of human knowledge and opinions. Collections include printed materials such as reference sets, paperback novels, biographies, children’s and young adult literature, histories, newspapers, and magazines. They usually also contain photographs, maps, art reproductions, sound recordings, and video recordings. In addition to print and audiovisual materials, computer workstations with software, CD-ROMs, and connections to information worldwide through the Internet.
These library resources play significant roles in education
       I.            Human resources (Librarians/information professionals)
    II.            Physical resources (building, conducive environment for learning and teaching, computer, etc)
 III.             Library resources (print and electronic instruments) 

    



  


LIBRARIANS AND LIBRARY STAFF



The typical library staff consists of three levels of employees: professional librarians, support staff, and part-time assistants. The proportion of each of these in any given institution depends on the type of library, its budget, and the types of users it serves. Professional librarians usually constitute the smallest number of a library’s employees. In addition to their managerial work, professional librarians assume primary responsibility for providing reference assistance, developing and managing the collections, and overseeing cataloging/classification.
Nonprofessional support staff commonly assumes most of the responsibility for directly serving library users. Their activities include essential functions such as inputting, coding, and verifying bibliographic and other data; ordering library materials; assisting with catalog development; performing circulation duties such as checking out books to users; and performing other services vital to the library’s daily operation.

Part-time staff members typically shelve books, perform low-level clerical duties, and carry out other relatively simple but essential tasks.
Different kinds of information can be found in different types of resources.
PRIMARY, SECONDARY AND TERTIARY INFORMATION

Most information is generally divided into three main categories: Primary, Secondary and Tertiary.

PRIMARY INFORMATION

Original sources of information and material that has not been interpreted by anyone other than its creator. They include diaries, letters, autobiographies, interviews, speeches, conference literature, stories, patents, poetry, photographs, drama, sheet music, visual art material and statistics .

SECONDARY MATERIAL

Created from primary material, interpreting  original material. They are sources of information that analyze and interpret primary sources. Always produced after the events or primary sources they comment upon. They include scholarly books, articles in journals, reviews and textbooks.

TERTIARY MATERIAL

Sources of information that analyze and interpret primary sources. Always produced after the events or primary sources they comment upon and act as a tool in understanding and locating information. They include: scholarly books, articles in journals, reviews, textbooks, databases, subject gateways, dictionaries, bibliographies etc.
·         books
·         magazine and Newspaper Articles
·         Diaries and Journals
·         Memoirs and Autobiographies
·         Interviews
·         Letters
·         Speeches
·         Documents produced by organization
·         Photographs and Images
·         Cartoons and Advertisements
·         Movies, Videos, DVDs
·         Audio Recording
·         Public opinion polls
·         Fiction
·         Research data and Statistics
·         Documents produced by government agencies

REFERENCE MATERIALS

Reference material is a good starting point when looking for information and definitions. Reference material includes dictionaries, encyclopedia, bibliographies, maps and atlases, yearbooks, handbooks and manuals, directories etc. 

TEXTBOOKS

Textbooks are secondary information resources. They will provide you with a good general understanding of a topic. They will often cover many areas of one more general topic. Textbooks will provide you with a good overview and will interpret relevant primary material.

JOURNAL

A periodical published by an institution or professional society in which researchers write about the results of their work to their peer community. It refers to scholarly publications as opposed to magazines that are considered popular publications. Journal articles are primary information resources. Journals are published on a regular basis. Each journal title focuses on a specific area or discipline. They describe research - the generation of new knowledge - and focus on very specific topics.


DATABASES

Databases are tertiary sources information. A collection of information that can be accessed and searched through the internet. Databases allow you to search across a range of journal articles from different journals .


NEWSPAPERS

Newspapers are primary sources of information. They are an excellent source when looking for current and up-to-date information.

CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS

Conference proceedings are primary sources of information and record papers presented at conferences.

WEBSITES

Websites are useful sources of current information and for an overview on a topic

SUBJECT GATEWAYS

Subject Gateways provide a useful starting point when searching for information on the Internet.

STATISTICS

Statistics are primary information. They can be very useful for looking at patterns and trends.

SEARCH ENGINES

Search engines enable you to find information on the Internet. There are different types of search engines: meta search engines - that allow you to search several search engines at once, scholarly search engines.

ABSTRACT

Short summary of an article or book

ALMANAC

Collection of miscellaneous facts and statistics on many subjects.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

A list of books and articles consulted, appearing at the end of a book or other text. A list of books and articles on a subject. It could also be referred to a list of books and articles written by a specific author or issued by a specific publisher.

GOVERNMENT DOCUMENT







LIBRARY CATALOGUE

A list of materials owned by a library, including books, magazines and journals, audio-visual materials and other materials.



THE ROLE OF LIBRARIES IN EDUCATION
Education’ and ‘library’ are two inseparable—indivisible concepts, both being fundamentally and syn-chronically related to and co-existent with each other. One cannot be separated from the other, and the existence of one is impossibility without the other. None of them is an end in itself; rather both of them together are a means to an ultimate end. One dies as soon as the other perishes. One survives as long as the other exists. This inter-relation, this co-existence, this dependence of one upon the other have been coming down from the birth of human civilization to the posterity through a process of evolution in accord with varied needs, changes, and circumstances of various stages of human life.
Education is an ‘aggregate of all the processes by means of which a person develops abilities, altitudes, and other forms of behaviour positive value in the society in which he lives. It is a ‘social process by which people are subjected to the influence of a selected and controlled environment (especially that of the school) so that they may attain social competence and optimum individual development. Education is thus the result of acquired knowledge and the cumulation of observations and experiences, while a library is both the fountain and source, and the protector and storehouse of that knowledge and experience. Education cannot exist alone in the absence of library, and library has no meaning if it cannot impart education. Education is an eye-opener to a human being ;it gives him perfect, adequate knowledge, creates civic and rational sense, withdraws him from the subjection of low habits, selfish passions, and ignoble pursuits, and thus educes him from abysmal darkness to limpid and perspicuous enlightenment, while library is an instrument of self-education, a means of knowledge and factual information, a centre of intellectual recreation, and a beacon of enlightenment that provide accumulated—preserved knowledge of civilization which consequently enrich ones mental vision, and dignify his habit, behaviour, character, taste, attitude, conduct, and outlook on life. Library makes available all the records of knowledge of the past and ‘present, whereas a man acquires that conserved knowledge to choose as between good and bad, the right or wrong, which distinguish him from the other animals who have no rational power or thinking .
Education has been defined as a complex of social processes of acquiring knowledge and experience, formally or otherwise. Education involves the total apparatus used for the development of the individual .

The library enables the individual to obtain spiritual, inspirational, and recreational activity through reading, and therefore the opportunity of interacting with the society’s wealth and accumulated knowledge. The library can be seen as an extension of education.Library services are needed to keep the skills that have been acquired through literacy classes alive by the provision of good literature. .

Education and Library are two inseparable indivisible concepts, both being fundamentally and synchronically related to and co-existent with each other.  One cannot be separated from the other.  None of them is an end in itself; rather both of them together are a means to an ultimate end.  One dies as soon as the other perishes.  One survives as long as the other exists .  This inter-relation, co-existence, this dependence of one upon the other have been coming down from the birth of human civilization to the posterity through a process of evolution in accord with varied needs, changes, and circumstances of various stages of human life.

Education cannot exist alone in the absence of library and library has no meaning if it cannot impart education.  A Good well equipped library is a sine qua non for the intellectual, moral, and spiritual advancement and elevation of the people of a community.  It is an indispensable element of the absolute well being of the citizens and that of the nation at large.  People acquire education through certain institutions, schools, agencies, welfare bodies, museums and organizations, and the library is the most outstanding of such institutions.  A school, a club, and enterprise of a society can never alone impart education; each of them is dependent upon a library – a centre of wholesome education, and the quencher of thirst for concrete, fathomless, ultimate knowledge!

The concept of education for sustainable development and its relationship with Education for All (EFA) is a new vision of sustainable development programme by UNESCO.  In December 2002, resolution 57/254 on the United Nations Decade of Education for sustainable Development (2005-2014) was adopted by the UN General Assembly and UNESCO was designated lead agency for the promotion of the Decade (UNESCO, 2002).

Indeed, the establishment of the concept on education for sustainable development and its relationship with Education for All (EFA) the United  Nations Literacy Decade (UNLD) and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) clearly illustrate that quality education, a goal of the library, is a prerequisite for education for sustainable development at all levels and in all modalities of education .  The Educational Policies and plans of UNESCO in the role of education and its development, poverty reduction, the promotion of universal human values and tolerance, and the challenges of new ICTs(library).

A Web definition for Education Development is the process of improving the effectiveness of educational provision through an ongoing review of relevant factors at all levels from teaching techniques and materials to institutional structures and policies, and the provision of mechanisms for progressive change.

While the library is essential to any formal educational system, the resources offered by the library are also required by people engaged in improving their education, whether at the remedial, functional or higher educational level.
A good—well-equipped library is a sine qua non for the intellectual, moral, and spiritual advancement and elevation of the people of a community. It is an indispensable element of the absolute well-being of the citizens and that of the nation at large. People acquire education through certain institutions, schools, agencies, welfare bodies, museums, and organizations, and library is the most outstanding of such institution! A school, a club, an enterprise of a society can never alone impart education; each of them is dependent upon a library—a centre of wholesome education and the quencher of thirst for concrete, fathomless, ultimate knowledge!
Library does not mean merely a collection of books. It is a learned institution equipped with treasures of knowledge maintained, organized, and managed by trained personnel to educate the children, men and women continuously and assist in their self-improvement through an effective and prompt dissemination of information embodied in the resources. A research scholar can never successfully conduct his investigations and researches without the help of a library and a librarian. Librarian, as an “information officer” or a “scientific officer” possesses, of necessity, definite subject background and knows best the subject area to be covered by an investigator in his narrow field of the problem in hand that he wants to attack! He is a best teacher to guide him with all existing up-to-date possible sources including various articles in research journals, periodicals, etc., as well as the rare information available in rare books, microfilms, microfiche, manuscripts, and the like. He can guide him most effectively and comprehensively with the bibliographies, indexes, abstracts, data-books and such innumerable reference sources and bibliographical apparatus which the investigator might, otherwise, are unaware of. Here a professionally trained efficient librarian plays a most significant role in the achievement of modern scientific discoveries. The importance of an up-to-date library in the projection of research studies can thus be very scarcely overemphasized .
It is evident that the different types of libraries play a significant role on different styles in educating the citizenry of a nation. The utility of a library in education can at once be felt and generalized particularly when we look into the educational conditions of the poor. The most flagrant aspect of the predicament of the poor people in developing countries (poor countries) is that their children are subjected to woefully inefficient public education. The degree of reading retardation among the children of rejected and oppressed peoples in developing countries is traumatically alarming.  This is due to their poverty that culminates in their inability to purchase valuable books and also to bear heavy expenses of tuition fees, etc. With the help of the libraries it may very well lodge a “war” or campaign against this poverty for which the education has remained handicapped and limited to the people of the upper strata of our society.  Libraries make available all the relevant books and other materials almost free of cost, and the children of the poor and the rich alike can derive equal amount of advantages out of this free service that helps in pursuing constructive education.
Libraries render a yeoman service in education through extension services and audio-visual aids, viz., story hours, lectures, book exhibitions, displays, book weeks, and motion pictures, newsreels, film strips, music scores, phonorecocds, and the like. These aids save people from the hackneyed monotony of perusing books, and teach them practically on the spot. They are also an aid to mass education of those who cannot read or write. This is of particular importance to the overwhelming illiterate people living in the villages. The traveling libraries are also of particular significance here since they carry the books to those remote areas of villages and towns where education could not thrive due to the absence of reading materials and reading centres.
A library has been the chief conserver of knowledge achieved by men in their intellectual pursuits that helps in generating new ideas and discoveries, while ‘education’ is an art of making available to each generation the organized knowledge of the past. A library is not, however, merely a conserver of the past events, experiences, and knowledge. ‘The preservation of the physical object called the “book”, for example, may not be important in itself. What is important is for the library to transmit to the incoming generations the ideas which the book contains.’ Through the instructional staff of the academic institutions the knowledge and ideas conserved by a library are revitalized arid put to use in the education of youth who are to be leaders in society and workers in the field of research, and through the methods of research the students are given an opportunity for independent works, and then the libraries and laboratories become inescapable and vital aids in an endeavour which is directed toward the expansion of man’s fund of knowledge. While the library makes this direct contribution to the advancement of knowledge, it serves as the principal training ground for those who undertake investigations in the fields of science, technology, industry, and the like.
Libraries are information and communication systems. The more complex the society is in its educational requirements the greater its dependence upon library based information services. Specifically, the primary purpose of libraries is as follows:
·         Enable information education opportunities for the citizens in the communities.
·         Enrich the knowledge of individuals in various subject disciplines where they undertake formal education.
·         Provide awareness to meet the information needs of people.
·         Support the educational, civil and cultural activities of groups and organisations.
·         Provide recreational opportunities and encourage constructive use of leisure time.

Libraries in carrying out this role of education can provide necessary materials such as textbooks, journals, magazines and exercise books related to the curriculum of the existing literacy institutions in the community be it conventional schools or adult classes. In this way, it has assisted in the campaign to make the society a more literate one. Libraries are regarded as the people’s university providing and independent decision taking. Libraries attempt to meet a wide varies of readers needs, providing varied information resources such as text books, journals, literary books and other publications.

The 1994 UNESCO manifesto sees libraries as a living force for a practical demonstration of universal as a lifelong process. Libraries can richly compliment the educational activities by assisting adult in no longer of school age, developing their attitudes, extending the knowledge and by acquiring, needed technical or vocational skills(UNESCO, 1994). In this way, the adult education products would emerge as responsible members of the society.
In carrying out its role, libraries can also train the personnel carrying out the different educational programme in the community. This can be done by the library carrying out seminars. Workshops and conference on the different subject areas of the literacy programmes; so that they can become better at their various fields. Libraries can also carry out their roles as education providers for their community by setting up literacy institutions such as adult literacy programmes in their community.

Libraries are very important in the life of any nation. If nation must develop, if a nation must achieve possible growth rate per capital income, the majority of the populace must be educated. This is because human resources is the most important indicator towards a nation building. The most important indicator of a nation is the quantity of its human’s resources and general capital. The most effective method of developing human resources is through education.

The development of manpower is one of national objectives. Libraries go a long way in contributing to manpower development. If teachers are thought of the importance of library resources and they know how to use libraries, they will see the libraries as laboratory for students. Through this, the adults are encouraged of effective use of the library in reading, and working independently. The adults will be better equipped and to make the teaching more interesting and purposeful.

Through education, the masses can attain literacy that is a prerequisite for any success in our national development. Libraries provide book and non-book materials to meet the educational needs and support the efforts of the adult’s education programmes to help contribute to the growth of a nation. Libraries have vital role to play in decision and policy making. It is in search of this justification libraries were established.

Library resources continue to play an important role in the education programme in sustaining the diverse forms of cultural expressions. Libraries acquire process, organize and preserve materials, which depict the way of life and experiences from others. Through libraries, the illiterate’s class can develop the skills in computer usage in searching for collection. Indexing and abstracting services. The library provide reading and learning materials to help argument lectures notes with facts and with ideas; provide information service, which is an essential element in the communication process. One requires information to communicate effectively.

Libraries serve as information system to allow one to explore parameter of his topic, promote functional literacy and education for individuals outside the formal school system. They provide appropriate reading materials to assist the government efforts in providing the illiterate adults in improving their educational standard and technical competence. Libraries can play their role of information by making available journals, newspapers and all other reading materials in the indigenous language so that education will be available at the grassroots.

Library resources provide the information needs of the illiterates that constitute the bulk of the population in the developing countries and unite all who enter its house to partake full in its intellectual activities. The institution serves as the society’s memory, standing the same relationship as the human memory does to the individual. The society draws from the libraries in the same way that an individual draws from his memory to meet his varied needs.

In the past few years the Web has had a tremendous effect on the growth of information and the speed of transmission. But the Web is not a library; there is no real organization of information, no archives, filter, or online support. No-one can really be sure what is there and how long it will last, or what is missing. And despite its size, the Web represents only a fraction of the world’s knowledge. Libraries however, select and organize print and electronic resources, databases and multimedia for quality, relevance and reliability. Library collections span continents and centuries, and preserve and make available to users a wealth of knowledge.

Libraries are viewed as an important component of education without the library no meaningful educational efforts can be carried out.  Generally, education is considered to be the imparting and acquiring of knowledge through teaching and learning, especially at a school or similar institution.  Functional education involves skills needed to cope with everyday situations .  The importance of the library in educational cannot be over-estimated. Thus the libraries have an essential and close bearing upon the advancement of education and learning at all levels for all the times to come.

A library within a school serves as a place for students to do independent work, use computers, equipment and research materials; to host special events such as author visits and book clubs; and for tutoring and testing. A library plays a very important role in promoting the progress of knowledge in many students. There are many students who love reading. But they can't afford to buy books because the prices of books are very high.
We live in the Information Age, and because we do, information literacy has become universal currency-the single common denominator required for success at any stage of life. This is especially true for individuals who, now more than ever, must be equipped to access, use, and evaluate information competency in both print and electronic formats. Librarians and library resources play key roles in promoting education, information literacy and reading for information and inspiration. Libraries become sophisticated 21st century learning environment that offer opportunities for achievement to individuals regardless of the socio-economic levels of the community.

LIBRARIES INSPIRE EDUCATION
When individuals of all ages have the opportunity to explore information that matters to them, various forms of education can emerge. Libraries have tools to inspire education of all ages.
·         They teach skills and strategies individuals need to learn and achieve
·         They are partners in education, developing curricula, and integrating resourced into teaching and learning
·         They teach the skills individuals need to become effective users of ideas and information
·         They seek, select, evaluate, and utilize electronic resources and tools and instruct individuals and educators in how to use them
·         Library is the ideal neutral and non threatening environment for learning, formal and informal, to occur
·         Libraries have a record of personal service and impartiality
·         They readily partner with other learning providers and with other libraries
·         They provide public ICT facilities and support


LIBRARIES ARE TRUE PLACES OF OPPORTUNITY WHEN
·         All individuals can strive for and achieve success
·         Quality collections are provided, in print and online, that support educational curriculum and address a variety of learning needs
·         Individuals can develop a love of reading and literature
·         Librarians help individuals explore the world around them through print and electronic media
·         individuals can work individually or in small groups on research and collaborative projects
LIBRARIAN/INFORMATION PROFESSIONALS ROLE IN EDUCATION
·         They teach skills and strategies individuals need to learn and achieve
·         They are partners in educating individuals, developing curricula, and integrating resources into teaching and learning
·         They teach the skills individuals need to become effective users of ideas and information
·         They seek, select, evaluate, and utilize electronic resources and tools and instruct individuals and educators in how to use them
·         They provide collaborative programs for reading instruction
·         They select resources to meet the learning needs of all individuals
·         They assure that technology, teaching, and learning are integrated seamlessly
·         they select resources that support learning standards
·         They select resources that enhance leveled collections
·         They provide imaginative materials that promote learning motivation
·         They encourage individuals to seek, access, and use information independently
·         They provide for free voluntary reading, individual reading selection and reading guidance
·         They provide avenues for achieving set objectives and mission of education
·         Manage information by providing intellectual and physical access to information in print, media, and online resources, either local or web based
·         Collaborate with educators to meet the intellectual needs of individuals
·         Collaborate with lecturers, teachers, educators regularly to provide resources and activities for course, unit, and lesson integration
·         Assist educators and individuals to search out their information needs, critically evaluate the materials they locate, and use technological means to synthesize their findings into new knowledge
·         Promote reading advocacy by matching students to books in all formats, including print, audio, and e-books
·         Teach information skills
·          Organize, manage, and maintain a collection of valuable resources
·         Provide resources and activities for individuals that are meaningful now and in the future
·         Share the findings of reading research with educators
·         Promote resources and activities that spark individual interest in reading, learning, and achievement through  school years
·         Maintain a supportive and nurturing environment in the library and network environment to increase individual satisfaction and achievement

IMPORTANCE OF LIBRARY IN EDUCATION
Library is like a storehouse of knowledge. You will find books in a library in almost all topics, be it history, geography, or even science fiction a library has it all. All schools and colleges have a library. Libraries are as the shrine where all the relics of the ancient saints, full of true virtue, and that without delusion or imposture, are preserved and reposed- Bacon. A library is like the whole world encompassed in one room. Without a library a school will not be complete. It is very essential to the education and school system. Any problem you have any query unanswered you will find it in one of the books stored in the library.
A pivotal role played by the libraries it is one of the factors which helps in the development of a society or an even a civilization. It caters to the knowledge thirsty minds of thousands of people.  With the onset and advancement of technologies virtual libraries are created. These types of libraries are present in many colleges. Libraries are an integral part of the education system and one is incomplete without the other.

The role of the library resources in education is to:
  • Facilitate the planning and implementation of learning programs that will equip students with the skills necessary to succeed in a constantly changing social and economic environment. Through resource-based programs, students acquire skills to collect, critically analyze and organize information, problem-solve and communicate their understandings.
  • Provide and promotes quality fiction to develop and sustain in students the habit and enjoyment of reading for pleasure and to enrich students' intellectual, aesthetic, cultural and emotional growth.
  • Cater for differences in learning and teaching styles through the provision of and equality of access to, a wide range of materials, fiction and non-fiction, print, audio, video and digital.
  • Provide educators with access to relevant curriculum information and professional development materials within and outside the educational system; and opportunities to cooperatively plan implement and evaluate learning programs which integrate information resources and technologies. (Usoro, 2007)
·         A State of literacy may be attained and maintained;
·         The individual may continuously improve his knowledge and skills;
·         The individual is enabled to adjust to existing social, political, and economic systems;
·         The individual may be made aware of the common citizenship, cultural heritage, and social values, and thus adapt to changing roles in adult life;
·         The individual may develop his personality and full potential, widening the range of his perception, interest and skills.
·         The library enables the individual to obtain spiritual, inspirational, and recreational activity through reading, and therefore the opportunity of interacting with the society’s wealth and accumulated knowledge. The library can be seen as an Integra part of education.
·         Libraries play a major role in education, including:
·         Helping literacy to become permanent
·         The improvement of knowledge and skills for positive, productivity
·         Assisting to adjust to existing social, political, spiritual and economic activities of the community.
·         Giving personal awareness to learners of their rights in the society and to appreciate the social values and be able to change for easy adaptation into the expected roles within the society.
·         Enabling the individual to develop its full potentials and widening the range of its perception, interests and skills.
·         Library resources help to develop a habit of lifelong learning. Library resources are needed to keep the skills that have been required through education alive. If education is to have a greater share in the molding and building of a happier individual and a better society, the providers of education must go beyond their roles as facilitators to a more practical role of providing library resources for sustaining the newly acquired skills of adult learners.
·         Library provision in primary and secondary schools has an impact on student learning.
·         Library provision can contribute to academic achievement, particularly in reading literacy, in primary level students.
·         The contribution to learning is dependent upon quantity and quality of collections and access to further resources and support from outside the school environment.
·         Libraries have the potential to play a pivotal role in improving literacy and reading habits amongst children and young adults.
·         Libraries play an important role in the development of the “inclusive education”.
·         Libraries potential to play an active and central role in promoting reading and combating illiteracy amongst the local communities.
·         participate effectively in school programmes as it strives to meet the needs of pupils, teachers, parents and other community members;
·         provide boys and girls with the library materials and services most appropriate and most meaningful in their growth and development as individuals;
·         stimulate and guide pupils in all phases of their reading so that they may find increasing enjoyment and satisfaction and may grow in critical judgment and appreciation;
·         provide an opportunity through library experience for boys and girls to develop helpful interests, to make satisfactory personal adjustments, and to acquire desirable social attitudes;
·         help children and young people to become skillful and discriminating users of libraries and of printed and audio-visual materials;
·         introduce people to the community library as early as possible and cooperate with those libraries in their effort to encourage continuing education and cultural growth;
·         work with teachers in the selection and use of all types of library materials which will contribute to the teaching program;
·         participate with teachers and administrators in programmes for continuing professional and cultural growth of the school staff;
·         Cooperate with other libraries and community leaders in planning and developing an overall library programme for the community.

Libraries are as important as education itself. Library services imply both availability and accessibility of library resources, facilities and services to the user and the willingness and ability of readers to use the facilities and services. Information is power and access to information is indispensable to individual advancement as well as corporate educational development. Individuals need the library for effective learning for lifelong education, the aim of basic education is to equip individual with such knowledge, skill, and attitude that will enable them to:
·         Live meaningful and fulfilling lives
·         Contribute to the development of the society.
·         Derive maximum social economic and cultural benefits from the society and
·         Discharge their civil obligation.
INCULCATING THE HABIT OF READING
Reading is regarded as one of the most enriching habits for the simple reason that it is not just a hobby or a pass time that entertains you, but it is also an educational activity and hence brings to you a vast reservoir of knowledge . Reading increases the drive for knowledge and inspires people to gain more information. Thus a library is a treasure of valuable books for the people to use and gain from it.

LEARNING EXPERIENCE FOR THE CHILDREN

A library is a very important aspect in the learning process of children. The extensive genre of children's literature is an essential part of the growing up process. Most of the public libraries are keeping with the times and equipped with facilities like CDs and even computers.
REFERENCE FOR SCHOOL/COLLEGES

The quintessential library is a boon for the students in schools and colleges. There exist a large number of reference books that provide information about wide ranging subjects are a must for students to understand the concepts in their curriculum. The reference books often provide in depth information about various subjects and thus help in the process of education.

ADVICE ON IMPORTANT SUBJECTS

There are large number of books that provide advice about various topics like business, health, travel, food and careers. These books serve as a great source of advice. Many people make it a point to read and go through these books before taking important decisions in their life. Thus libraries are also helpful for people who are looking for information about specific subjects. For example a person who is planning to travel to a particular place would like to read about that destination.
WHOLESOME INFORMATION

A library usually has a good collection of encyclopedia, dictionaries and maps, which are a source of extensive information and references for people. The encyclopedias are a vast source of information about all the topics under the sky. There also exist specialized dictionaries like medical dictionaries, literature dictionaries or business dictionaries, which provide information about specific terms used in specialized fields.


ENTERTAINMENT AND FUN

In addition to the above mentioned points, libraries are also a host to large number of books that are a source of entertainment for us. Fiction books, which include various genres like comedy, thriller, suspense, horror or drama, are tremendously popular within readers of varying age groups.
Libraries are thus a source of entertainment and education for youngsters as well as adults. A library not only helps to inculcate the habit of reading but inculcates a thirst for knowledge, which is makes a person humble and open to new ideas throughout his/her life.

CONCLUSION

Libraries are vital institutions, which cannot be separated from education. The provision of libraries is crucial and indispensable to education in a nation. Therefore, whatever is done to improve the quality of education is done to improve the nation. The absence of libraries will have negative effects on education. Therefore, individual learners should be encouraged to use them.







REFERENCES
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